This is a very basic description. If you want to know more, this article is full
of search terms that you can use for your own research.
part of the name;
‘net’ stands for network
. A network is two or more
computers that are linked via wires or wireless technology and they are
capable of sending data to each other.
internet consists of a network, of many networks, that are all
by an array of networking technologies. That includes academic,
business, government, private and public networks from local to worldwide.
At first, the internet was only available to the government and universities,
but then it went public in the 1990’s and has grown exponentially ever since.
The internet carries a vast range of information, resources and services.
Today, it rivals brick and mortar establishments for trade.
You can see a graphical representation of the internet here:
Although the internet provides many
valuable services, it can also be the equivalent of the Wild West because
some of the information is misleading. I often refer to the internet as the
‘outernet’ because of the advent of home networks.
The ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT), usually refers to a physical object capable of
connecting to the internet or a network. A smart house, a smart phone or a
personal computer are some examples.
The Internet was established in the US in the early1960’s, by several people
In 1962, during the cold war, a scientist from M.I.T., named J.C.R. Licklider
and the government office of ‘ARPA,’ proposed a solution;
A ‘galactic network’ of computers that could talk to one another.
Such a network would enable government leaders to communicate even if
another government or enemy group destroyed the telephone system.
In 1965, another M.I.T. scientist developed a way of sending information from
one computer to another that he called ‘packet switching.’ Packet switching
breaks data down into blocks (packets) before sending it to its destination.
Without packet switching, the government’s computers would have been just
as vulnerable to attacks as the cell phone system.
Although we may not be aware of it, we communicate online through data
packets. Information is transported from your computer, across the internet to
it’s destination, in data packets. They are usually sent at regular intervals and
take a set amount of time and each packet can take its own route.
The Internet was first called the ‘ARPANET.’ Robert W. Taylor led the
development of the ARPANET which, was an acronym that stood for
“Advanced Research Projects Agency Network” after the US Government
agency (ARPA) that first proposed linking computers together.
The term ARPANET was abandoned about 1990.
In 1969, the ARPANET delivered its first message; a communication from
one computer to another. The message was the word “LOGIN.”
One computer was located in a research lab at UCLA located in Los Angeles,
CA and one was at Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA. Each computer filled
a large room. Although the message LOGIN was short and simple, it crashed
the ARPANET so, Stanford University’s computer only received first two
letters of the message.
By the end of 1969, four computers were networked. The fledgling internet
grew steadily through the 1970’s as more computers were added.
By the end of the 1970s, two computer scientists named Vinton Cerf and
Robert Kahn began developing a way for all of the computers on the internet
to communicate. They called their invention ‘Transmission Control Protocol,’
(TCP). Later, they added a protocol, known as ‘Internet Protocol.’
The acronym that we use to refer to this is ‘TCP/IP.’
Currently, there are two types of IP addresses that are in use for the internet;
IVP4 and IVP6. An IVP4, IP address consists of several numbers separated
by periods or dots such as; 126.96.36.199. An IVP6 address usually consists
of a shorter number such as; 188.8.131.52/24. Your Internet Service Provider
(ISP) provides an IP address every time that you connect to the internet.
That IP address will be either ‘Dynamic’ or ‘Static.’
A dynamic IP address will change every time you log on and a static IP
address will be the same every time you log on. Most ISP’s charge extra for a
static IP. Hackers, Social Media, ISP’s and many others learned early on that
an IP address carries a wealth of information about you and that information
can be valuable.
While the Internet has grown exponentially, the issuance of domain names
and it’s maintenance has been controlled by several company's. Today, the
internet is maintained by the ‘Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
VPN stands for ‘Virtual Private Network.’ The public internet has brought into
existence new forms of exploitation, such as Spam E-mail, Trojan horses and
various types of Malware. With the public internet, new terms such as
Cyberbullying, Doxxing, Flame Wars and Ransomware have been created.
Many companies collect extensive information from users which, some see
as a violation of privacy. Hence, the popularity of a VPN service.
A VPN service will route your IP address through a server that is typically out
of the country and change it in the process. Some services can sell you a
modified wireless router so that your entire connection is through their
service, starting with your connecting device which, will keep your ISP out of
What a VPN Cannot Do
VPN’s cannot make online connections completely anonymous, but they can
increase privacy and security.
A VPN does not make your Internet connection
secure (private). You can still be tracked through tracking cookies and device
fingerprinting, even if your IP address is hidden. A VPN does not make you
immune to hackers. A VPN is not a means for good internet privacy. You will
still need to be diligent by not allowing tracking cookies and the like through
your browser settings. I personally have my browsers set to maximum
security. My browsers are set so tight that they won’t let me go to a website
that is suspicious. Those sites that won’t let me browse because of my
security policies, simply loose my business.
Many browsers have a VPN built in that can be turned on or off.
The use of a VPN in your browser can make the surfing of some sites difficult
So, be ready to switch off the VPN option in your browser if necessary.
The acronym stands for Voice Over Internet Protocol. VoIP enables you to
connect your phone service over IP networks as opposed to over a land line.
This may be not as secure as a land line but it is more cost-effective than
having both an internet service and a land line.
VoIP uses the internet for calling, this means you can make calls directly
from a cell phone or your computer. There is software available that allows
the use of old style phones.
VoIP also offers additional features like Voicemail to E-mail. You can access
it on your computer or phone. Another feature is simultaneous ring. This is
where calls show up on your desk phone and on your mobile device. You can
also easily route calls from the destination phone to any mobile phone that’s
connected to the system. Call logs and call recording give you an inside look
at call analytics to better understand how the phone lines are being used.
The downside of a VoIP service is that when you lose power, your phone
service is also dead.
On August 6, 1991, British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee published the
first-ever website while working at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear
Research). Tim Berners-Lee developed HTML, HTTP and URL’s.
So, with the creation of a single web page, the World Wide Web was born.
Today, the number of websites is somewhere North of 1.8 Billion.
Web Page Hosting
There are two main types of internet hosting for your website. Typically, the
cheapest form of internet hosting is called ‘Shared Hosting.’ This is where
everyone shares space and other resources on the same server or servers.
Several hosting companies are usually involved with the server(s) to share
the cost and often they are owned by the same company or group of
investors. I usually refer to shared hosting as ‘Server Malls.’
Not only are you reading this article via shared hosting, you are using the
internet to read it.
Another form of hosting is called ‘Dedicated Hosting.’ Dedicated hosting is
where one person or company rents the space. Dedicated hosting is
generally more expensive and it can be tailored to fit the bandwidth needs of
the person or company.
© Corey Bailey Audio Engineering
DO IT YOURSELF?
BAKING AUDIO TAPE
LUBRICATING AUDIO TAPE
REPAIRING A BROKEN 78
FLATTENING A RECORD
A Little About Sound
Optimizing your PC
Packing Records for Shipment
People I have Known
Playing Records Wet
Playing a Wire Recording
Saving Your Family Video
The Ken Slater Tapes
Tubes vs Transistors
What Type of Wire?
Your Digital Data is at Risk